Search Results


An overarching goal of the RADARS System is to share knowledge and data with research colleagues, medical and public health officials, policymakers, regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies to deter the misuse of prescription medications.

To that end, RADARS System data are shared through posters, platforms and invited presentations at conferences and organizations around the world and are published in peer-reviewed journals.

Download a full list of RADARS System manuscripts, abstracts and presentations.

Please use the tabs below to explore our RADARS System manuscripts, abstracts and presentations.

Publication Details


Bucher Bartelson B, Le Lait MC, Green JL, Cepeda MS, Coplan PM, Maziere JY, Wedin GP, Dart RC. Changes in misuse and abuse of prescription opioids following implementation of Extended-Release and Long-Acting Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 Sep; 26(9):1069-1070. doi: 10.1002/pds.4257.

Butler SF, Black RA, Severtson SG, Dart RC, Green JL. Understanding abuse of buprenorphine/naloxone film versus tablet products using data from ASI-MV® substance use disorder treatment centers and RADARS® System Poison Centers.  J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017; 84:42-49.

Buttram ME, Kurtz SP, Dart RC, Margolin ZR. Law enforcement-derived data on gabapentin diversion and misuse, 2002-2015: diversion rates and qualitative research findings. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 Sep; 26(9):1083-1086. doi: 10.1002/pds.4230.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS.  Understanding the demand side of the prescription opioid epidemic: does the initial source of opioids matter?  Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;173:S4-S10. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.03.014.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Kasper ZA.  Increased use of heroin as an initiating opioid of abuse.  Addict Behav. 2017 Nov;74:63-66. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.030.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Kasper ZA. Psychoactive substance use prior to the development of iatrogenic opioid abuse: A descriptive analysis of treatment-seeking opioid abusers. Addict Behav. 2017 Feb;65:242-244. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.08.024.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Kasper ZA.  Increases in self-reported fentanyl use among a population entering drug treatment: the need for systematic surveillance of illicitly manufactured opioids.  Drug Alcohol Depend.2017;177:101-103. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.04.004.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Kasper ZA. Relative preferences in the abuse of immediate-release versus extended-release opioids in a sample of treatment-seeking opioid abusers. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 Jan; 26(1):56-62.


Dart RC, Iwanicki JL, Dasgupta N, Cicero TJ, Schnoll SH. Do abuse deterrent opioids work? J Opioid Manag. 2017
Nov/Dec; 13(6):365-378.

Fonseca F, Torrens M, Farré M, McBride KE, Guareschi M, Touzeau D, Villeger P, Benyamina A, Dagnone O, Somaini L, Maremmani I, Dart RC. Patterns of prescription drug use and misuse in Spain: The European Opioid Treatment Patient Survey. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl. 02 January 2017;19(4):53-56.

Green JL, Bucher Bartelson B, Le Lait MC, Roland CL, Masters ET, Mardekian J, Bailey JE, Dart RC. Medical outcomes associated with prescription opioid abuse via oral and non-oral routes of administration. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017; 175:140-145. DOI 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.039.

Hoyte CO, Albert D, Heard KJ. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance. J Community Health. 2013; 38:575-580.


Pouget ER, Fong C, Rosenblum A. Racial/ethnic differences in prevalence trends for heroin use and non-medical use of prescription opioids among entrants to Opioid Treatment Programs, 2005-2016. Subst Use Misuse. 2017 Aug 30. DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1334070. Epub ahead of print.

Vosburg SK, Haynes C, Besharat A, Green, JL. Changes in drug use patterns reported on the web after the introduction of ADF OxyContin: findings from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Web Monitoring Program. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 Sep; 26(9):1044-1052. doi: 10.1002/pds.4248.


Bau G, Bucher Bartelson B, Severtson SG, Green JL, Dart RC. (2016). Comparison of population rate trends between the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) and the RADARS® System Poison Center Program. RADARS® System Technical Report, 2016-Q4.

McDaniel HA, Severtson SG, Bucher Bartelson B, Green JL, Dart RC (2016). Comparing Prescription Opioids, Methadone, and Heroin Endorsement Rates from the Treatment Episode Data Set to the RADARS® System Treatment Center Programs, RADARS® System Technical Report, 2016-Q3.

Iwanicki JL, Severtson SG, McDaniel H, Rosenblum A, Fong C, Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Kurtz SP, Buttram ME, Dart RC. Abuse and diversion of immediate release opioid analgesics as compared to extended release formulations in the United States. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0167499. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167499

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Kasper ZA.  A tale of 2 ADFs: differences in the effectiveness of abuse-deterrent formulations of oxymorphone and oxycodone extended-release drugs.  Pain  2016;157(6):1232-8.

Severtson SG, Ellis MS, Kurtz SP, Rosenblum A, Cicero TJ, Parrino MW, Gilbert MK, Buttram ME, Dasgupta N, Bucher Bartelson B, Green JL, Dart RC. Sustained reduction of diversion and abuse after introduction of an abuse deterrent formulation of extended release oxycodone. Drug Alcohol Depend 2016;168:219-229.

Dart RC. Opioid analgesics with abuse-deterrent properties: current data and future opportunities. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Committee on Pain Management and Regulatory Strategies to Address Prescription Opioid Abuse. Washington, DC. September 2016.

Maremmani I, Somaini L, Deruvo G, Maremmani AGI, Touzeau D, Walcher S, Fonseca F, Bacciardi S, Guareschi M, Green JL, McBride K, Dart RC. Opioid misuse in the 30 days prior to entering Agonist Opioid Treatment in four European Countries. A pilot study. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl 2016; 18(3): 43-52.

Wiegand TJ, LeLait MC, Bucher Bartelson B, Dart RC, Green JL. Analysis of the abuse and diversion of the buprenorphine transdermal delivery system. J Pain2016;17(6):745-752.


Dart RC, Green JG. The prescription paradox of acetaminophen safety. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1002/pds.3930

Dart RC, Surratt HL, Le Lait MC, Stivers Y, Bebarta VS, Freifeld CC, Brownstein JS, Burke JJ, Kurtz SP, Dasgupta N. Diversion and illicit sale of extended release tapentadol in the United States. Pain Med. 2016;17(8):1490-1496.

Ruan X, Chiravuri, Kaye AD. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioids [Letter to the Editor]. JAMA Psychiatry 2015;72(8):849-850.


Dart RC, Severtson SG, Green JL. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioids [Letter to the Editor]. JAMA Psychiatry 2015;72(8):849.

Fong C, Matusow H, Cleland CM, Rosenblum A. Characteristics of non-opioid substance misusers among patients enrolling in opioid treatment programs: a latent class analysis. Journal of Addictive Diseases 2015; 34(2-3):141-50.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioids [Letter to the Editor]. JAMA Psychiatry 2015;72(8):850-851.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Harney J. Shifting patterns of prescription opioid and heroin abuse in the United States [Letter to the Editor]. N Engl J Med 2015;373(18):1789-1790.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS. Abuse-Deterrent Formulations and the Prescription Opioid Abuse Epidemic in the United States, Lessons Learned From OxyContin. Jama Psychiatry.


Maremmani I, Guareschi M, Deruvo G, Somaini L, Maremmani AGI, Green J, McBride K, Dart RC. Prescription opioids (substitution medications and pain medications) in patients looking for opioid agonist treatment in Northern and Southern Italy, using a 18-month survey methodology. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems. March 2015; 17(1): 33-42.


West NA, Severtson SG, Green JL, Dart RC. Trends in Abuse and Misuse of Prescription Opioids Among Older Adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2015


Dart RC, Surratt HL, Cicero TJ, Parrino MW, Severtson GS, Bucker-Bartelson B, Green JL. Trends in Opioid Analgesic Abuse and Mortality in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015 Jan 15.


West NA, Dart RC. Prescription opioid exposures and adverse outcomes among older adults. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1002/pds.3934.


Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. The changing face of heroin use in the United States: a retrospective analysis of the past 50 years. JAMA Psychiatry 2014;71(7):821-6.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. Factors contributing to the rise of buprenorphine misuse: 2008-2013. Drug Alcohol Depend 2014;142:98-104.


Dart RC, Bucher Bartelson B, Adams EH. Non-medical use of tapentadol immediate release by college students. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2014 Mar 5


Le Lait MC, Martinez EM, Severtson SG, Lavery SA, Bucher-Bartelson B, Dart RC. Assessment of prescription opioid intentional exposures across the rural-urban continuum in the United States using both population and drug availability rates. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Jun 4.


Lavonas EJ, Severtson SG, Martinez EM, Bucher-Bartelson B, Le Lait M-C, Green JL, Murrelle L, Cicero TJ, Kurtz SP, Rosenblum A, Surratt HL, Dart RC. Abuse and diversion of buprenorphine sublingual tablets and film. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2014 Jul:47(1):27-34.


Surratt HL, O'Grady C, Kurtz SP, Stivers Y, Cicero TJ, Dart RC, Chen M. Reductions in prescription opioid diversion following recent legislative interventions in Florida. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2014:23(3):314-230.

Davis JM, Severtson SG, Bucher-Bartelson B, Dart RC. Using poison center exposure calls to predict prescription opioid abuse and misuse-related emergency department visits. 2013. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2014:23(1):18-25.

Passik SD. Tamper-resistant opioid formulations in the treatment of acute pain. Advances in Therapy. 2014; 31(3):264-275.

Davis JM, Searles VB, Severtson G, Dart RC, Bucher-Bartelson B. Seasonal variation in suicidal behavior with prescription opioid medicine. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 158:30-36.


Bucher-Bartelson B, Bailey JE, Lowenstein S. RADARS: Teen prescription drug use and abuse update. Brown University Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology Update. 2013;15:5-6.

Bucher-Bartelson B, Bailey JE, Lowenstein S. Teen prescription drug use and abuse update. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter. 2013; 29:3-4.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. Factors influencing the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary opioids in substance abusers seeking treatment in the United States. Pain. 2013;154(12):2693-2648.

Dasgupta N, Freifeld C, Brownstein JS, Menone CM, Surratt HL, Poppish L, Green JL, Lavonas EJ, Dart RC. Crowdsourcing black market pricing of prescription opioids. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2013:15(8):e178. DOI:10.2196/jmir.2810.

Giraudon I,Lowitz K, Dargan PI, Wood DM, Dart RC. Prescription Opioid Abuse in the United Kingdom. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;76(5):823-824.

Lavonas EJ, Banner W, Bradt P, Bucher-Bartelson B, Brown KR, Rajan P, Murrelle L, Dart RC, Green JL. Root causes, clinical effects, and outcomes of unintentional exposures to buprenorphine by young children. Journal of Pediatrics.2013;163(5):1377-1383. 

Sembower MA, Ertischek MD, Buchholtz C, Dasgupta N, Schnoll SH. Surveillance of Diversion and Nonmedical Use of Extended-Release Prescription Amphetamine and Oral Methylphenidate in the United States. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2013;32(1):26-38.

Smith SM, Dart RC, Katz NP, Paillard F, Adams EH, Comer SD, Degroot A, Edwards RR, David Haddox, J. , Jaffe JH, Jones CM, Kleber HD, Kopecky EA, Markman JD, Montoya ID, O’Brien C, Roland CL, Stanton M, Strain EC, Vorsanger G, Wasan AD, Weiss RD, Turk DC, Dworkin RH. Classification and definition of misuse, abuse, and related events in clinical trials: ACTTION systematic review and recommendations. Pain. 2013:1542287-2296. 

Severtson SG, Bucher Bartelson B, Davis JM, Muñoz A, Schneider MF, Chilcoat H, Coplan PM, Surratt H, Dart RC. Reduced abuse, diversion, and therapeutic errors following reformulation of OxyContin® in 2010. Journal of Pain. 2013:14(10):1122-1130.

Zosel A, Bucher Bartelson B, Bailey E, Lowenstein S, Dart R. Characterization of adolescent prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2013:52(2):196-204.


Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL. Effect of abuse-deterrent formulation of OxyContin. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;367(2):187-189.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS. Health outcomes and motivations of patients using no-prescription online pharmacies to purchase tramadol. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2012(Dec 06);14(6)e174.

Cicero TJ, Surrat HL, Kurtz S, Ellis MS, Inciardi JA. Patterns of prescription opioid abuse and comorbidity in an aging treatment population. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2012;42:87-94.

Dart RC, Cicero TJ, Surratt HL, Rosenblum A, Bartelson BB, Adams EH.  Assessment of the abuse of tapentadol immediate release: The first 24 months. Journal of Opioid Management. 2012;8(6):395-402.

Dasgupta N, Davis J, Funk MJ, Dart R. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths. PLOSone. 2012;7(7):e41181.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041181

Reifler LM, Droz D, Bailey E, Schnoll SH, Fant R, Dart RC, Bucher Bartelson B. Do prescription monitoring programs impact state trends in Opioid abuse/misuse? Pain Medicine. 2012;13:434-442.


Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Paradis A, Ortbal Z. The role of key informants and direct patient interviews in epidemiological studies of substance abuse. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2011;20(3):308-312.

Cicero TJ, Kurtz SP, Surratt HL, Ibanez GE, Ellis MS, Levi-Minzi MA, Inciardi JA. Multiple determinants of specific modes of prescription opioid diversion. Journal of Drug Issues. 2011 Spring: 41(2):283-304.

Cleland CL, Rosenblum A, Fong C, Maxwell C. Age differences in heroin and prescription opioid abuse among enrollees into opioid treatment programs. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. 2011;6(2):11.

Dart RC, Dasgupta N, Bailey JE, Spiller HA. Interpreting poison center call volume associated with tramadol. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2011;45(3):424.

Katz N, Dart RC, Bailey E, Trudeau J, Osgood E, Paillard F. Tampering with prescription opioids: nature and extent of the problem, health consequences, and solutions. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 2011;37:205-217.

Rosenblum A, Cleland CM, Fong C, Kayman DJ, Parrino M. Distance traveled and cross-state commuting to opioid treatment programs in the United States. Journal of Public and Environmental Health. 2011;2011:948789.EpubJuly6.

Surratt H, Kurtz SP, Cicero TJ. Alternate routes of administration and risk for HIV among prescription opioid abusers. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2011:30(4):334-341. 


Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Paradis A, Ortbal Z. Determinants of fentanyl and other potent μ opioid agonist misuse in opioid-dependent individuals. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2010;19:1057-1063.

Cicero T, Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Horbay G, Bordman J, Forster I. Characteristics of prescription opioid abuse in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Addiction Medicine. 2010;1(2):9-13.

Dasgupta N, Bailey JE, Cicero T, Inciardi JA, Parrino M, Rosenblum A, Dart RC. Post-marketing surveillance of methadone and buprenorphine in the United States. Pain Medicine. 2010;11(7):1078-1091.

Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Cicero TJ, Rosenblum A, Ahwah C, Bailey JE, Dart RC, Burke JJ. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: Who are the end users? Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2010;110(1-2):21-29.

Lindholm A, Varughese S, Sembower MA, Shiffman S, Schnoll SH, Ertischek MD, St. Jean E, Rosen S. Current trends in nonmedical use of prescription extended-release amphetamines and methylphenidate. European Psychiatry. 2010;25ns1:648.

Smith MY, Rosenblum A, Parrino M, Fong C, Colucci S. Validity of self-reported misuse of prescription opioid analgesics.  Substance Use and Misuse. 2010;45:1509-1524.

Spiller H, Bailey JE, Dart RC, Spiller SS. Investigation of temporal changes of abuse and misuse of prescription opioids.  Journal of Addictive Disease. 2010;29:78-83.


Bailey JE, Campagna E, Dart RC, Reporting for the RADARS System Poison Center Group. The underrecognized toll of prescription opioid abuse on young children. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2009;53:419-424.

Dart RC. Monitoring risk: Post marketing surveillance and signal detection. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2009;105(S1):S26–S32.

Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Cicero TJ, Beard RA. Prescription opioid abuse and diversion in an urban community: The results of an ultrarapid assessment. Pain Medicine. 2009;10(3):537-548.

Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Cicero TJ, Kurtz SP, Martin SS, Parrino MW. The ‘black box’ of prescription drug diversion. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2009;28(4):332-347.

Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Stivers Y, Cicero TJ. FDA approvals of generic drugs:  Impact on the diversion of opioid analgesics with a potential for abuse. Journal of Opioid Management. 2009;5(2):81-87.

Maxwell JC, McCance-Katz EF.  Indicators of buprenorphine and methadone use and abuse: What do we know? The American Journal on Addictions. 2009;19:73–88.

Schneider, MF, Bailey, JE, Cicero TJ, Dart RC, Inciardi JA, Parrino M, Munoz A. Integrating nine prescription opioid analgesics and/or four signal detection systems to summarize statewide prescription drug abuse in the United States in 2007. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2009;18(9):778-790.

Spiller H, Lorenz DJ, Bailey JE, Dart, RC. Epidemiological trends in abuse and misuse of prescription opioids. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2009;28:130-136.



Hayes BD, Klein-Schwartz W, Doyon S. Toxicity of buprenorphine overdoses in children. Pediatrics. 2008;121:782-786.

Niemi J, Smith M, Banks D. Biosurveillance and Biosecurity: Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics. Ed. D Zeng, H Chen, H Rolka, and W Lober. New York: Springer, 2008. 131-142. (Book Chapter)

Smith MY, Irish W, Wang J, Haddox J, Dart RC. Detecting signals of opioid analgesic abuse: Application of a spatial mixed effect poisson regression model using data from a network of poison control centers. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2008;17:1050-1059.



Cicero TJ, Dart RC, Inciardi JA, Woody GE, Schnoll S, Munoz A. The development of a comprehensive risk-management program for prescription opioid analgesics: Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®). Pain Medicine. 2007;8(2):157-170.

Cicero TJ, Inciardi JA, Surratt HL. Trends in the use and abuse of branded and generic extended release oxycodone and fentanyl products in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2007;91:115-120.

Cicero TJ, Surratt HL, Inciardi JA, Munoz A. Relationship between therapeutic use and abuse of opioid analgesics in rural, suburban and urban locations in the United States. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2007;16:827-840.

Hughes AA, Bogdan GM, Dart RC, Reporting for the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System Poison Center Group. Active surveillance of abused and misused prescription opioids using poison center data: A pilot study and descriptive comparison. Clinical Toxicology. 2007;45:144-151.

Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Lugo Y, Cicero TJ. The diversion of prescription opioid analgesics. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal. 2007;(November):127-141.

Rosenblum A, Parrino M, Schnoll SH, Fong C, Maxwell C, Cleland C, Magura S, Haddox D. Prescription opioid abuse among enrollees into methadone maintenance treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2007;90:64-71.

Smith MY, Bailey JE, Woody GE, Kleber HD. Abuse of buprenorphine in the United States: 2003 – 2005. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2007;26(3):107–111.

Smith MY, Schneider MF, Wentz A, Hughes A, Haddox JD, Dart RC. Quantifying morbidity associated with the abuse and misuse of opioid analgesics: A comparison of two approaches. Clinical Toxicology. 2007;456:23-30.



Bailey JE, Barton PL, Lezotte D, Lowenstein SR, Dart RC. The effect of FDA approval of a generic competitor to OxyContin® (Oxycodone HCl Controlled-Release) tablets on the abuse of oxycodone. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2006;84:182-187.

Inciardi JA, Cicero TJ, Munoz A, Adams EH, Geller A, Senay EC, Woody GE. The diversion of Ultram®, Ultracet®, and generic tramadol HCl. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 2006;25:53-58.

Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP, Burke JJ. The diversion of prescription drugs by health care workers in Cincinnati, Ohio.  Substance Use and Misuse. 2006;41:255-264.

Smith MY, Dart RC, Hughes AA, Geller A, Senay EC, Woody GE, Colucci S. Clinician validation of poison control center intentional exposure cases involving prescription opioids. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 2006;32:465-478.



Cicero TJ, Inciardi JA. Diversion and abuse of methadone prescribed for pain management. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2005;293(3):297-298.

Cicero TJ, Inciardi JA, Munoz A. Trends of abuse in OxyContin® and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004. The Journal of Pain. 2005;6(10):662-672.



Inciardi JA, Goode JL. OxyContin® and prescription drug abuse. Consumers’ Research. 2003;86(7):17-21.